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Explain and clarify the tasks of the processor

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CPU


The processing process is carried out through the CPU, and it is considered the most important chip inside the computer, and there are several factors that determine the quality of the performance of the CPU.


Manufacturers :


INTEL

AMD

SYRIX

MOTOROLA

IBM


the speed :


The CPU is available at different speeds depending on the system used, such as:

PI\PII\PIII…

It indicates the quality of the processor used at different speeds.


Memory types:


The memory used in the processor differs from the temporary memory and others in the device.

CASHE MEMORY

It is a cache that increases the speed of the processor and is divided into three types:

128 CASH MEMORY

256 CASH MEMORY

512 CASH MEMORY KB


Processor types:


1-386:

It has an external data carrier.

The number of contactors 132 bin .

Consumes 400 mA .

Its speed ranges between 16-33MHz.

2-486:

It has an external data carrier.

The existence of arithmetic processor inside the processor to perform the calculations .

The existence of hidden memory with a capacity of 16 k .


3- Pentium processors:


In 1992, Intel announced the emergence of a new generation of processors, and a computer carrying this processor appeared in 1993. The Pentium processor is compatible with Intel systems.


Pentium features:


It has 2 data lines that execute more than one operation at the same time.

There is a new translator.

Pentium follows a special technology to reduce the search time in memory.

It has a high strength and speed cache.


Pentium 1:


Its speeds are 90-200MHz.

It consumes an electric current ranging between 3.25-4.7 amps.

296 bin.


There are two types of this system:


MMX

appeared in 1997.

321 bin.

It operates on 2.8 volts.

PRO

It appeared in 1995 and spread in 1996.

378 bin.

It works on 3.3 volts.


Pentium 2:


It is considered one of the latest types of processors and it appeared in 1997.

Its speeds: 233-266-300-333 up to 450 MHz.

Contains 378 bin .

It works on 2.8 volts.

Then the Pentium 3 and 4 system appeared, which do the same system as the Pentium 2 with an increase in processor speeds.


Pentium


Speeds: 500-1100.


Pentium 4:


Speeds: 1300 - 2000 MHz.


Processor types:


We have two types of processors:


SLOT-SOCKET


The process that occurs inside the processor:


1- When entering data using the input tools.

2- The processor at this moment is divided into three stages:

Console - Arithmetic and Logic Unit - Record the result.


For example:


3 + 5


Processor installation method:


The processor is installed in the place designated for it, then its cooling fan is installed, and then the fan is connected to the motherboard to connect it to the power supply.


Processor test:


After installing the processor, you must make sure that the fan on it is working properly.

If it appears that the processor temperature is too high, it must be replaced and the replacement should be sent to the manufacturers of this processor.


Processor malfunctions:


Malfunction: The computer does not work properly after changing the processor.

The reason: the processor is not defined.


Action :


Battery removal and reinstallation - SETUP

Malfunction: strange sounds are heard after installing the processor.

Reason: processor failure.


Action :


Replace the processor.

Malfunction: Nothing appears on the screen even after checking the validity of the graphics card and temporary memory.

Reason: processor failure.

Action :

Replace the processor.

The main board or, as is commonly known, the motherboard is one of the most important components of the computer, as well as the so-called system board.

There are two main types of motherboards on the market:

1- Detailed motherboard: This motherboard comes with an electronic track system that allows the installation of a number of cards.

SLOTS

2- Integrated board: It is the board that contains integrated cards such as sound cards and graphics cards.

BUILT-IN


Motherboard Components:


1- Electronic tracks: They are different shaped tracks found on the motherboard to install their cards.


2- The rum:


BIOS-ROM

ROM-READ ONLY MEMORY

It is the read-only memory, which is the initial operating system of the device. There are several specialized companies that produce ROMs, and each company has secrets that it keeps about the hardware and software used in its production. These companies include:

COMPAQ-AT & T-ZENITH

You can get information about the ROM used on your computer as follows:

When the device is turned on, the del button key is pressed, and the SETUP screen appears


3- The battery:


It is a battery located on the motherboard, which feeds the device with electric power when it is closed, and it also saves the ROM settings.


4- Tracks temporary memory:


It is the paths for the development and installation of RAM temporary memory.


5- The position of the processor:


And it is in two forms: SOLT-SOCKET


6- External Ports:


They are the ports for installing and connecting external devices to work with the device.


7


Conductive slots with the internal parts of the device such as:


IDEO-IDEI

It is linked through the so-called data bus tape or data cable DATA CABEL

It is a tape that extends from an internal device such as a hard disk to the system board and there


Two common types:


FLOPPY DATA CABEL

HARD DISK DATA CABEL

Note that the second is installed with the CD-ROM reader

Types of motherboard in terms of the power supply unit:

AT: Where the entrance to the power supply unit is in the form of two separate sockets to supply the motherboard with an electric current, and accordingly, either the power unit or the outer cover is chosen.

ATX: Where the input of the power supply unit is in the form of two connected fishes.


Noticeable difference between:


AT: The user has to close the device from the main switch of the box.

ATX: The device shuts itself down automatically when it is given the shutdown command by the operating system used.


note :


The processor is selected according to the allowed speeds available by the motherboard.


Motherboard installation:


The motherboard is installed on a hall inside the external computer box, provided that it is not touched, and therefore plastic pieces must be placed inside the corners of the motherboard slots to raise them from the level of metal contact, and then be connected with their own screws.


motherboard malfunctions


Fault: No data appears on the screen after replacing the motherboard.

Reason: If the reason is not related to the RAM or the graphics card or the processor, the malfunction will be in the motherboard.


Action :


It must be replaced.

Malfunctions: Sometimes malfunctions of the integrated cards appear in the integrated board.


Reason: a malfunction in one of the motherboard's built-in cards.


Action :

Cancel the built-in card and replace it. If the motherboard does not have this feature, the motherboard must be replaced.


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